Wm?(^rif;^Ml^^v V ^,:* -/ '• v.
V.v I V.' <-- '.^
Published Quarlerjjr in Ifie inrere.$w or -*
OmiJhoIo^y in the Great LaKe Jiegion .
A Hypericin (,Mip|-ation Route. By P. A.
Taverner ....... ^ 3
The,*filciiii!4'i&e^. MiSewick's Wren, Thryomanes
bewickii (Aud.^.r at ^Grand Rapids. By I^eon
J / d (ili .' .^ . J 8
Nesting: of the Woodcock. By Gerard Alan Ab-
bott, with pictures from photogfraphs by Robt.
Observations on the Nesting Habits of a Pair of
House Wrens. By Max M. Peet 15
Birds Noted En Route to Northern Michigan. By
Norman A. Wood 17
Notes from the Field 20
An Unusual Bird Wave. By Norman A. Wood and
Otto McCreary 22
Two New Bird Pictures, W. B. B 23
The Bird Magazines 25
A New Factor in Migration , 27
Michigan Audubon Society. Jefferson Butler 29
Minutes of Club Meetings 30
is published on the fifteenth of March, June, September
and December, by the Michigan Ornithological Club, at
Subscription : Fifty cents a year, including postage,
strictly in advance. Single numbers, fifteen cents. Free
to members of the Club not in arrears for dues.
Articles and notes intended for publication, and all
exchanges and books for review should be addressed to
the Editor, Walter B. Barrows, Agricultural College, Mich.
Dues, subscriptions and communications of a busi-
ness nature should be addressed to the Business Manager,
Frederick C. Hubel, 112 Alexandrine Ave., Detroit, Mich.
Articles of general interest relating to the bird life of
the Great Lake Region are solicited. They should be in
the hands of the editor not later than the 20th of the
month preceding publication.
Entered April 20th, 1903, at Detroit, Mich., as second-class mail matter under the Act of
Congress July i6th, 1894.
FEB 8 i922
Rose°breasted Grosbeak (Zamelodia JudoViciana)
FROM SPECIMEN MOUNTED BY A. B. COVERT
Michigan Ornithological Club
PUBLTSHKD QUARTERLY I3V THE InTKKE«TS Ol-- ORNITHOLOGY
IX THE Grkat Lake Regioiv.
Vol. VI. MARCH— JUNE, 1905. Nos. 1 & 2.
A hyperlakp:n migration route.
BY P. A. TAVERNER.
On going o\er some extra-limital records and comparing them with those
of this state 1 was lately much struck with the peculiar cases of distribu-
tion thus brought to light. The species in question are all western or
northwestern breeding forms regularly migrating up and down the Mis-
sissippi Valley, though straggling eastward in some cases, even to New
England. It is to these stragglers and their peculiar distribution that I wish
to call attention.
On coi"p?.ring- various lists of the country about the Great Lakes it
nnmediately strikes the attention tb.at southeastern Ontario is more than
'visually well supplied with these rare forms.and from the comparative num-
bers of such, it is evident that this section of Canada is more closely related,
ornithologically. v.itli the Prairie Regions of the northwest than its relative
position on the map would lead one to suppose. The city of Toronto and
its immediate vicinity is especially so favored and some most astonishing
records have been made within the city liniits.
Michigan, on the contrary. i< surprisingly lacking in these forms,
as are those parts of Ohio and Indiana lying immediately to he south.
Considering that this state is several hundreds of miles nearer the natural
range of these birds than Toronto, it is evident that this steady drift of
accidental visitors to the shores of Lake Ontario and their regular avoid-
ance of this state cannot be due to mere chance. The records cover a num-
ber of years and can hardly be due to any temporary set of meteorological
conditions, for though a storm might once in a while blows birds from, say.
Wisconsin clear over this state into the middle of southern Ontario, such
could not happen very often without depositing more of its flotsam and
jetsam upon our own state than appears to be the case.
In the following annotated list of the birds under discussion I have
taken advantage of the following authorities : Kumlien & Hollister's Birds
of Wisconsin; Butlers Birds of Indiana; Lynds Jones' Birds of Ohio;
Clyde Todd's Birds of Erie,. Presque Isle Co., Pa.
4 Bulletin of the
For my Michigan records I am indebted to Mr. N. A. Wood and the col-
lections of the Museum of the University of Michigan and especially to Prof.
W. B. Barrows, of the Agricultural College, who has rendered me great aid
in advice from the materials he has gathered for his forthcoming list of the
birds of Michigan.
My Ontario records have all been verified by Mr. J. H. Fleming, of
Toronto, whose work in eliminating and substantiating the various records
for his Province has rendered his aid invaluable.
It is much to be regretted that our records are not fuller in various
sections. The whole north shore of Lake Superior and Huron seem ornitho-
logically a terra incognita and the amount of careful work in the Northern
Peninsular leaves much to be desired. The one season's work done at Isle
Royal by the University of Michigan Surve}^ is hardly enough to do more
than raise interesting suggestions without furnishing data enough to satisfy
the interest thus awakened. Until more information is gathered many of
the following conclusions can only be regarded as tentative and advanced
more to awaken interest in the problem than as final and absolute conclusions.
Habitat — United States and British Province. Rare now in Eastern United
States. Only occasional in New England. Abounding in the West, espe-
cially in the alkaline regions as those of the Milk River, Yellowstone,
Wisconsin — considered exceptionally rare — 5 records.
Indiana — Rare migrant — 1 record for Indiana — Calumet Lake.
Michigan — No records.
Ohio — 1 Cincinnati; 1 St. Mary's Reservoir; 1 Cleveland; 1 Lebanon
Ontario — Three individuals taken at Rondeau at different times; 2 speci-
mens, Toronto, June and fall.
Habitat — Chiefly west of Rocky Mountains. Utah. California Coast; breed-
ing and wintering ; also coast of Texas.
Wisconsin — No record.
Indiana — No record.
Michigan — No record.
Ohio — No record.
Ontario — 2 records, Toronto.
WESTERN RED-TAILED HAWK.
Habitat — Western United States at large, particularly United States from
Rocky Mountains to Pacific.
Wisconsin — Of but rare occurrence.
Indiana — No records.
Michigan — No records.
Ohio — 1, Franklin Co.
Ontario — 1, St. Thomas; 1, Toronto.
Habitat — Western North America from Wisconsin. Illinois, Arkansas and
Texas to the Pacifi Coast; north to arctic regions; south to Buenos
Michigan Ornitholo(;icai. Cluh 5
Ayrcs ; casually cast to Alassachusctts.
Wiscoiisiii — Not uncoininon — 20 records cited and more inferred.
Indiana — No records.
MicJiigan — 1 Hillsdale Co.; lAnn Arbor; 1 Genesee Co.; several Wayne
Ontario — 3 specimens for Toronto.
Quebec— A few examples taken.
Habitat — Northern and Western North America ; casually East and South
to Michigan (accidental in Northern Illinois in winter) and the plains,
and in the l\ock\- Mountains to New Mexico and Arizona.
Wisconsin — 6 birds recorded.
Indiana — No records.
Michigan — Of doubtful occurrence in state — no records.
Oliio — No records.
Ontario — 1 Port Sidney; several Kingston; - Odessa; common resident
Copper Clififs. Lake Superior.
Habitat — Prairie marshes of ^Mississippi Valley and Central British Province.
Breeding from Alinncsota (N. and ^^^), Illinois, South Dakota, etc., to
Assinaboia and Manitoba; in winter south to Gulf States and Coast of
JVisconsin — Irregularh^ and locally very common.
Indiana — A dozen or so in west central Indiana.
Michigan — One record, Ann Arbor.
Ohio — No record.
Ontario — 1 Toronto.
Habitat — Manitoba and the Dakotas, Minnesota, western Wisconsin, Ne-
braska and Iowa and northern Illinois. South in winter to the Gulf
JVisconsin — Last 12 years exceedingly abundant about Lake Koshkonong.
Indiana — Observed in northwestern part of state.
Michigan — One record for Wayne Co.
Ohio — One record for extreme northeastern corner of state.
Ontario — About 10 records for Toronto.
Pennsylvania. — Common fall migrant, Erie. Presque Isle Co.
From the above records it will be seen that many of these species are
more or less common migrants and residents through Wisconsin and northern
Illinois. Also that northwestern Indiana gets a considerable number and
northeastern Ohio a few. while the space between these two latter points is
almost barren of them. The Lower Peninsular of Michigan has very few
records, and most of them are in the southeastern corner of the state. Eor
the Northern Peninsular, as I said before, our records are rather scanty,
but wdiat we have indicate a dearth of these northwestern forms just
where we would expect to find them more plentiful.
It seems evident then, that these birds do not cross Michigan to reach
southeastern Ontario, and another route must be sought for. As there is
6 Bulletin of the
no indication of the birds across Indiana and Ohio they must take a
hyperlaken route along' the north shores of Lake Superior and Huron,
around the great indentation of Georgian Bay and then south to Lake
Ontario. This would bring them directly to the Toronto locality where so
many specimens have been taken.
From the eastern corner of Georgian Bay there springs a great water
system, extending down via Lakes Muskoka, Couchaching and Simcoe and
the Holland, Don and Humber Rivers directly to the city of Toronto, and
offering what seems, if our present ideas are correct, an ideal migration
route. That this latter part of the way is a natural highway of communica-
tion and something more than a chance connection of small streams is evi-
dent when we remember that it was the old Voyageur and Indian route and
later the military highway to and from Fort York and the upper posts of the
That Toronto lies right in the path of a strong migratory movement
no one who has colleted or observed there will doubt. Spring and fall
there is a great massing of bird life at this point, both of species and
individuals, that can be explained in no other way. Probably in no
other like locality can as many birds be seen at times as here, except per-
haps the classic valley of the Connecticut River. Nor does the line of
densest population appear very wide. Many birds are common and regular
on Toronto Island that are rarely met with elsewhere in the Province.
By this same token it would appear that the route lies directly across
Lake Ontario from here, for any pronounced movement along the shore
would have been noted, especially if it led around the most obvious end of
the lake, viz., the western, for Hamilton has been a well watched station
for years and from the work of Mr. Thos. Mcllwraith is one of the classic
spots of Ontario ornithology.
This slow but steady drift of straggling birds about the north end of
the larger of the Great Lakes indicates something more than accidental
wanderings. It points to peculiar conditions that naturally direct these
forms along such a course. According to a high authority such bodies of
water should have but a slight effect on the direction of migration, but the
facts of these cases lead to a different conclusion. It is interesting in this
connection to observe that with one exception the winter ranges of these
birds lie entirely within the boundaries of the United States or northern
Mexico and that on their normal migation no necessity occurs to cross the
broad waters of the Gulf of Mexico. In the cases of such birds, unaccus-
tomed to sustained flight across large bodies of water, wc can readily under-
stand why they should hesitate to cross the expanses of the Great Lakes.
Other species habituated to such passages and perhaps better provided with
powers and instincts for it would venture boldly across, but none of these
occur in the above list. The fact is suggestive and it is evident that the
Great Lakes do form serious deflectors to the current of the migration
of at least these species.
I do not think T can be seriously charged with jumping at conchr^ions
if T infer from these straggling wanderers a nuich more ]-)ronouiir(>d move-
ment in other forms along the same lines. In fact it appears likely that,
Michigan Ornitiiolcx.ical Ci.uii
IsMiovvinti' the i^rcgarious iiislincls of l)ir(ls (luring niij^ralions and liow often
we lincl little jyronps of different species mif^ratint^ together, that birds hav-
ing lust their \va> and filled with the unrest of the migration season, would
attach themselves to some such group or groups and with them appear in
localities that alone and unguided they would never have found. Should
the new hahitat he congenial we should expect them to return over the
same route unless they fell into the company of others of their kind and
with them Iraxel along the normal route of their species.
Such at least appears to be the natural explanation of the phenomena
imder discussion and a glance at the map will show how feasible such a route
is. l"^-om a point on the north shore of Lake Superior just east of the
Nipigon the most natural way south without crossing the Greater Lakes
would be just such a route as T have mapped out. Many undoubtedly cross
to the I'pper Peninsular at the Sank and come down the western shores
of Lake Michigan through the lake counties of Wisconsin, but no con-
clusive data on this movement are to be had for reasons given before. That
none or but very few of these species continue across the straits of Mackinac
and down through the Lower Peninsular is, however, quite evident.
Certain facts gathered by the Isle Royal Survey seem to indicate a possi-
ble migratory movement of some species across Lake Superior from that
Island to Keweenaw^ Point, but that is only conjectural as yet and at any
rate the rata do not warrant applying it to the species under consideration.
Nelson's Sparrow is an interesting example of a bird following this
hyperlaken route and the case is typical and well marked. This species appears
as a regular fall migrant at Erie, and spreads irregularly through the Atlantic
states from North Carolina even up to Maine. It would seem as though
this was a case where an accidental movement had been fixd as a per-
manent habit by the continued success of the species concerned and gives
us a hint of some of the factors that must be taken into consideration when
we attempt to follow out Palmen's law of migration in all cases. Should the
original stock from which these Erie birds have sprung, from causes anyw'here
along their regular habitat, become extinct, these stra}' individuals might still
survive, and with their strange migrations offer a most perplexing problem
to some future student.
It is always unpleasant to hear a friend's name mispronounced, but in
many cases the offender has no possible way of knowing better. Therefore
it may be of interest to some to know that Dr. Cones always pronounced his
name is spelled "Cow^s," and Dr. Stejneger is called either "Stenneger" or
"Stynegar" with the accent on the y — probably the latter is nost nearly cor-
rect. Bendire is pronounced P)endyre not Bcndear ; and the late Percy
Selous, an Englishman, pronounced his name Sa3^-lo6, as if French.
8 Bulletin of the
THE OCCURRENCE OF BEWICK'S WREN, Thryomanes bewickii
(Aud.), AT GRAND RAPIDS.
BY LEON J. COLE.
There are a number of birds which are interesting to Michigan ornithol-
ogists on account of the northward extension of their range in this State
within a comparatively few years. As striking examples may be mentioned
the Cardinal and Dickcissel, probably the Carolina Wren, and undoubtedly
Bewick's Wren should be added as another.
Butler, in his 'Birds of Indiana' (22d Report of the Department of
Geology and Natural Resources of Indiana, 1897) gives a good record of
the progress of this bird through Indiana, so that, as it fortunately happens,
we are able to trace the successive steps to the northward of the Ohio River
with considerable fullness. It is to be regretted, however, that the records are
not much more complete than they are ; for in that case it might be possible
to trace the exact lines along which the extension has taken place, if, as
seems very probable, it has occurred in such a regular manner. To show
the course through Indiana I cannot do better than quote the words of Butler
(loc. cit., p. 1117) : " . . . The recent extension of the range of this species
is notable. In 1879 Dr. Wheaton announces it had not been authentically
reported from Ohio (Birds of O., p. 230) ; it was unknovvii to him that Mr.
Chas. Dury took it that year at Cincinnati. It was almost wholly unknown
in Franklin County, Ind., until recent years. In 1869 Dr. Rufus Haymond
had seen but a few specimens. None were noted from that year until 1877,
when Mr. E. R. Quick identified several specimens. From that date to 1881,
an occasional one was seen. Since the last mentioned year, however, when
they became common, they have been annually increasing in number, and
now they are abundant. The spring of 1897, I found six pairs breeding in an
area of one-half mile by a mile, in Brookville. Up to 1890 it had reached
Vigo and Putnam counties, where it was rather common, and had been re-
ported from Marion County. North of the points named it was unknown.
"It was first noted at Lafayette in 1890, where a pair bred (Dr. F. C.
Test), and they became common in 1892 (L. A. and C. D. Test). They
were first reported from Wabash in 1891, and were common in 1894 (Wal-
lace). One was seen at Springport, Henry County, April 29, 1894 (William-
son). They were first reported and said to breed at Petersburg, Mich., May
]5 and 16, 1894. They were still rare there in 1897 (Trombley). The first
record from Richmond, Ind., is in the spring of 1897, and it is given as
rare (Hadley) "
Here there seems to be some evidence to indicate two lines of pro-
gression, one from the region of Cincinnati up the valley of the White Water
River, the other up the valley of the Wabash ; and it probably is by this lat-
ter route that the birds have come into Michigan. It must be remembered,
however, that as in the case of all similar observations, the distribution of
records is largely dependent upon the distribution of field observers.
Butler states it as his belief that the species is extending its range of
winter residence northward as well, and that north of that limit the date
of its spring migration is 1)ecoming earlier. Pie gives some data in support of
this view, which seems quite to be expected.
it will l)e noticed that, upon the authority of Trombley, Butler reports
this wren from Peter.sburg, Michigan, in 1894, adding that it was still rare
Michigan Ornithological Club 9
there in 1S97. The year 1894 is not the earliest record for that locality, how-
ever, for in Cooks 'Birds of Michigan,' pnhlished in Iso;; (p. 142), Mr.
Trombley is quoted as saying that it is a "summer resident in Monroe Co.,
where it has nested three years in a bird ho.x, identification certain;" which
wouUl mean that he lirst noted it in the sununer of ISiil. In his list of the
birds of Washtenaw County, published in ISSl, Covert records a single
specimen which antedates the above record by l.') years.' It has not, to my
knowledge, been observed in that county since that time, and the
record was very unusual, since at that date it had not been authentically
reported from Ohio, and was not known in Indiana north of Franklin
County, in the southeastern part of the State. Dr. Morris Gibbs states that
it is "rare, but several taken in Kalamazoo County ;" but no dates are given.'
In the spring- of 1894 I had an excellent opportunity to observe a pair
of Bewick's Wrens at Grand Rapids. I was not then acquainted with the
l)ird, and no specimen was secured ; but my description, written at the time,
leaves rio doubt of its identity. My first notes were written on May 5 of that
year, when a single bird was observed carrying nesting materials to a cigar
box which has been nailed to the inside wall of a shed in ni}- yard, with a
small hole leading to the exterior. The nest-building was carried on
in a rather desultory way until the 16th, and never in this interval did
I see more than the one bird, which I took to be a male. Much of his time
was spent in singing and in flitting about in a small pile of lumber near by.
For the nest he appeared to gather grass, bark from neighboring grape vines,
and also employed to a small extent some strings and pieces of cotton that
I laid out for that purpose. I have no good record of the song, but I take
the following from my notes : "His usual song is short, but very pretty ;
and although it is not much like that of our common wren [House Wren]
it resembles it in being slow at first, and more rapid near the close. He has
many other songs [variations, it might perhaps better have been said], one of
which is like the one described^ only more slow throughout."
On May 16 two birds were seen, and it appeared to me from their actions
that the one that had built the nest was attempting to coax the other bird
to it. They were much annoyed during the day by a male Bluebird whose
mate was sitting on five eggs in a bird house but a short distance away, and
were frequently forced to retire into the lumber pile to avoi^t his attacks.
Whether for this reason, or whether for some other less apparent I do not
know, but greatly to my disappointment both birds disappeared on that day,
and I did not see either of them again.
The nest I saved in its box, and it is now deposited in the Museum of the
University of Michigan. I had made no description of the nest, and at my
request Mr. Norman A. Wood has kindly sent me the following : The nest
is in a box 6^x4^ inches, 3^4 inches high, and occupies about one-half of
the space in the box. The foundation, or base, of the nest, is composed of
^Covert, A. B... "Annotated List of the Birds and Mammals of Washtenaw County,
Michigan" (extracted from the "History of Washtenaw County"), ?klarch, 1881, p. 17b:
"Thryotlwnts bezi'ickii. — Bewick's Wren. But one specimen of tliis bird has been shot
in this county to my knowledge (a male. Tune 3. 1878). This is also referred to bv Ridg-
way, "The Birds of North and Middle America," Part III., 1904, p. 554 (Bulletin'so, U.
S. National Museum). ■-. :
-Cook's "Birds of Michigan," p. 142. In his "Annotated List of the Birds of Michi-
gan" (Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Survey, Vol. V.^ No, 3, pp. 481-497, 1879), Gibbs
states for Berwick's \\'ren (p. 483): "Rare: only a few taken in spring."
10 BUI.I.BTIN OF THE
roots of bushes and weeds, a few sticks, and a string about a foot long. The
rest of the nest is made of fine rootlets, and with them is a Httle wool or
cotton [cotton, see above] ; this is built up to form a rim, making a cup-shaped
interior 2 inches in depth and diameter. The nest is at the end opposite the
entrance, which is 1^ inches square, and a few of the roots extend to this
During the same spring, 1894, I heard birds which I took to be Bewick's
Wrens singing at one or two other places in the city, but did not see any of
them. Whether my birds returned in 1895 I am unable to say, as I was
away that year ; but I am certain that they were not in the same neighborhood,
at any rate, in the seasons of 1896 and 1897.
With the exception of Mr. Trombley's records from Petersburg, I am
not aware that this wren has been reported in Michigan since 1894. I should
Urge upon the members of the Michigan Ornithological Club, therefore, that
during the present season espeial are be taken to establish definitely its
distribution in the State. Wherever it occurs in the northernmost part of
its range, it appears to be extremely local, and should be looked for with
NESTING OF THE WOODCOCK.
BY GERARD ALAN ABBOTT.
[With pictures from Photographs by Robert Hegner.]
I spent six years looking for woodcock nests before success crowned
my efforts, although my search was confined to the same territory that
proved so productive in later seasons.
April 28th, 1901, while beating through a willow copse, I found among
the leaves on a little knoll the remains of four eggs of Philohela minor, from
which the young had just emerged. This discovery, though not productive
of immediate results, furnished an inside track, which in turn led directly
April 13th, 1902, with a companion, I revisited the willow copse, pre-
viously mentioned, and found four fresh woodcock eggs within fifty yards
of the last year's nest. This I will refer to as pair number one.
The morning of April 20th was ushered in by such a balmy spring
atmosphere that had the weather been a little inclement our prospects for
Woodcock would have been more encouraging. On damp or cloudy days
these birds often sally forth from their hiding places voluntarily. Moreover
we worked with a feeling of uncertainty because there was such a vast
amount of undergrowth, oak, hazel, and haw stretching before us, that
it was quite evident we could cover but a small portion of the area. About
noon my companion was plodding along in a half-discouraged manner when
he came upon a sitting bird with four beauties under her, and toward
the termiation of our journey that day I secured another set of four from the
last brush we encountered. It was dusk and the male was flying about
preparatory to one of his aerial performances, consisting of an irregular
ascent accompanied by a chirp and twitter, mingled with the whistling of
wings, until a height of one hundred feet or more is attained, when the
bird wheels about circling downward to alight precisely in the same spot
from which he arose, which is apt to be within a few yards of the female.
MrcHiGAN Ornithological Club
My friend climbed through the brush and ascended the hill just in time
to see the female leave her nest to feed, it being about time for her morning
meal. In springing from her nest she caused the eggs to roll about rather
vigofousl}- for a few seconds. Idiis I refer to as pair number two.
On April :34th, within a stone's throw of the nest found April 15th, I
came across the remnants of four eggs just hatched. This nest was among
fallen brush in a fence corner.
April 27th was preceded by a tremendous rainfall, and the Woodcock
were working overtime feasting on angle worms. It was nearly 10 A. M.
when we arrived on the preserves. From the appearance of a nest which
WoodcocK (Vhilohela minora on Nest
FROM PHOTOGRAPH BY ROBERT HECNER
I located half an hour later, I estimated the eggs had been deposited about
twenty-three days previously, and as the Woodcock hatches a brood in
twenty-one days, what I got (or, rather, what I missed) can readily be
guessed. One hundred and fifty yards farther through the timber I flushed
a bird between two wagon tracks and found three fresh eggs. Thinking she
was about to lay a fourth I withdrew from the spot for several hours, but
she did not come back.
April 5th, 1903, was a cold day, and the snow still lay in shady places
about the woods. W^e w^ere on the breeding ground of pair number tw^o, and
no less than a dozen W^oodcock were seen, but they did not appear mated.
Some were flushed after we had tracked them through the snow for
BuivIvKTiN OF THE
twenty-five or thirty yards. On the 11th I revisited this place alone, and
after hunting five hours, found an incomplete set of two, which I collected on
the 13th, just one year after I had taken my first set.
Several weeks later, and in another district. I spied a young cotton-tail
and endeavored to catch him. He led me to a brush pile, where I halted
abruptly with one foot touching an incubating Woodcock. The nest held
four eggs, and undoubtedly belonged to a bird whose former nest was
broken up by the snow.
On April 19th we explored a small but extremely wild country densely
covered with willows, sumach, alders and briers, an ideal spot for warblers.
I was searching diligently when my companion summoned me to a liltle
clearing surrounded on all sides by brush heaps. Chalkings were conspicuous
Nest of WoodcocK CPhilophela minor)
FROM PHOTOGRAPH BY ROBERT HECNER
here, and so was Mrs. Woodcock after I had pointed her out, much to the
disgust of the one who had called me to the spot ! I stooped and stroked
the bird for several minutes before she vacated her nest and revealed
Late in the afternoon of April 29 I visited a favorite Woodcock resort,
equally popular as a paradise for wild flowers at this season of the year.
After dodging about for ten minutes in a patch of hackberry I confronted
what appeared to be a pair of black beads sparkling in such an animated
•manner that I at once perceived a Woodcock was making "goo goo eyes"
Michigan Ornithological Club
at nie. Inirtunatcly a photographer was within hailing distance and, elated
at the opportunity, he made an excellent series of photographs of the bird,
nest and four eggs.
Meanwhile I was keeping a sharp watch on pair number one, and had
called upon them at least five times, which was equivalent to twenty-five
miles of walking with an additional one hundred miles by rail. In each
instance I located both birds, and felt confident before withdrawing from
the spot that nesting had not yet begun. Finally on May G, I found a set
of four perfectly fresh eggs in a clump of willows only a few rods from
the two previous nesting sites of the same pair. I supposed the season had
Woodcock [Philohela minor) on Nest
FROM PHOTOGRAPH BY ROBERT HECNER
terminated with this find, but on 'Ma.y 15 one of my acquaintances, wdiile
plowing his corn stubble, overturned a Woodcock, eggs and all, and failed
to notice her until she fluttered out from under the sod as the next furrow
was turned !
The temperature during April, 1904, was below normal, but the air was
clear and bracing. Under such conditions the bird student requires no other
inspiration than that afforded b}' the stimulating atmosphere. Many days
were spent seeking the evasive Woodcock, until at twilight May 1st, I turned
homeward feeling that I had enough for the season. Ten nests in all
were found between April 10th and Alay 1st. besides several broods of
young, with an average tramp of twenty-five miles for every nest. There
BuivLETiN OF THE
were six sets of four, two of three, another on the verge of hatching, and
one destroyed by a forest fire.
I visited pair number two on the 18th, and found her sitting on only
three eggs. The nest was two inches above the ground and rested on
several willow limbs that grew almost parallel with the earth. She stuck
closer than a wood-tick, and had to be lifted off her eggs, which she
succeeded in covering again before I had time to say "boo."
April 21, between tree trunks, amidst a cluster of sumach, a Wood-
cock's bill projected beyond a little limb just enough to betray her presence.
She was a nervous sitter and flushed before I could reach her. The last egg
had just been laid, and what a set! One would have thought they had been
WoodcocK '"Philophela minor^ on Nest
FROM PHOTOGRAPH BY ROBERT HECNER
exposed to the weather for a year, and the shells turned a chocolate brown
by the decayed leaves, after which the sumach berries had stained the larger
halves of the eggs with crimson. The latter color mingled with a shade of
violet that seemed to come from the blue dowers growing about the place.
Like all other eggs of this species I have colleted, these turned paler
after blowing, but are still orrespondingly darker than any other set I have.
May 1 was a delightful day, and migration had reached its /.enith, yet
the passing of the Woodcock season meant tlie termination of a fascinating
epoch ; all subsequent "finds" arc tame. Such were my thoughts as T wan-
dered reluctantly among some brier patches, when a diminutive cotton-tail
attracted my attention. lie was a mascot, and his presence foretold the
Michigan Ornithological Club 15
acquisition of another trophy. The period of anticipation was brief. I stood
gazing intently at the little fellow, who returned my stare apparently with
equal satisfaction. He was sitting motionless about fifteen feet away, but
not until I had watched him for some minutes did I recognize the pale
mottled plumage of a close sitting "Woodcock, directly in my line of vision.
The nest contained four bufify eggs, heavily blotched with red and lilac.
OBSERVATIONS ON THE NESTING HABITS OF A PAIR OF
BY MAwX MINOR PEET.
On the first of May, 190-i, the first pair of House Wrens made their
appearance. After looking the neighborhood over carefully in quest of a
good nesting site, they finally chose a box which I had placed on the trunk of
a large, spreading apple tree. During the days previous to the selection
of their home, they were usually together and were constantly on the move,
peering into every nook and corner about the house and yard. Most of their
time was spent within a few feet of the ground, but many times during the
day the male would mount some high limb and there pour out his rippling,
liquid notes. In fact, the first notice I had of their presence was one morning
when I stepped to the door and was confronted with this wee little fellow
sitting on the topmost limb of the apple tree, singing with all the energy his
small body could muster. Their food consisted principally of small insects,
larvae from the rose bushes^ and numerous flies.
On the 17th of May, they began their nest, both the male and
female working; the female did nearly all the building, the male simply
bringing material. One of the birds was near the nest constantly and ready
to scold any one intruding upon its sacred domain. The female worked dili-
gently carrying twigs, feathers, and horsehair, but the male took frequent
vacations in the upper branches of the apple tree, where he gave vent to his
pent up feelings in bursts of beautiful song.
The nest was finished on May 22. The foundation consisted of large
sticks varying from three to six inches in length and from one-sixteenth to
three-sixteenth inch in diameter. Upon this solid foundation was built a firm
mass of smaller twigs forming a rough cup at the farther end of the box.
The bark from the grape vines was now^ brought into use and narrow strips
of this were woven with a net work of slender roots into a compact cup
about two inches deep. A few horsehairs were woven into the lining, the nest
being completed by the addition of many small feathers.
Not until the 26th was an egg laid, but during this time and until the
young left the nest one or the other of the birds was always near. An egg
was laid each day, usually early in the morning, for six consecutive days.
This set was of unusual beauty, the eggs being of uniform size and of vary-
ing color from the first egg laid, which was a dark chocolate, to the last one,
which was very light brown speckled with small dark spots.
The female commenced setting on the day following the laying of the
last egg (June 1). She only left the nest a few moments at a time to feed
and then about nine in the morning and four in the afternoon. The male
spent much of his time singing from his favorite perch on the apple tree, but
also made frequent visits to the nest to see that all was well. He seldom
fed her while she was sitting.
16 Bulletin of the
On June l'2th four of the eggs hatched ; on the next day one more opened,
and on the following day the last baby was born. They were homely, crea-
tures, of a deep flesh color and naked, save for a ver}^ little down, which
became evident on June 15th. By June 16th their bodies had turned black
and the down was somewhat thicker. This was the first day on which they
had shown strength enough to lift their heads for food. Both parents
worked faithfully, bringing innumerable larv?e and small flies. One of the
favorite morsels was a small green worm from the rose bushes.
One day a young Robin, not yet feathered out, fell from its nest, and
I placed it in a berry box on the wren house. Both Wrens were greatly
excited arid tried to feed the unfortunate Robin. The female, holding a worm
in her bill, would poise herself upon the edge of the basket and try to place
it in the Robin's mouth. The result was ludicrous. The Robin being not yet
strong enough to hold its head steady, and being very hungry, made frantic
efforts to obtain the morsel, holding its head as high as possible, at the same
time keeping its mouth wide open. Its head, supported by so weak a neck,
swayed violently back and forth. The Wren leaning over the basket seemed
afraid of falling into the yawning cavern presented by the young one. Each
time the Robin threw its head in the direction of the Wren that little body
would jerk backward as if from an electric shock. The Wrens kept at their
self imposed duty for more than half an hour, but were unable to place a
single morsel in the open mouth. The Robin was now taken away amid the
earnest protests of the foster parents.
The young Wrens were fed, on an average, once every five minutes
during the entire day. When partly feathered out one died, but was not
removed irom the nest although it was still small enough to have been easily
lifted out by the parents. They were nearly feathered by the 23d, and spent
most of their time eating and sleeping. They were now fed even oftener
than before and were able to eat entire insects, the green worms from the
rose,- and spiders, forming their favorite food.
■ On June 28th, amidst a great deal of excitement, the brood left the nest.
At first they were guided about the lower limbs of a nearby plum tree, and
after gaining more courage they made a complete tour of the trees in the
yard. At the approach of any one, great anger and distress was shown by
the parents, who scolded and fretted trying to drive one away. They were
full of courage and felt perfectly competent to protect their little ones. The
male had little time for singing now, he being usually followed by a string
of -two or three little fellows constantly crying for food. The brood did not
returned to the nest the first night nor any night thereafter, though they
remained in the vicinity till fall.
The year before this the pair had nested in an old pump near the house,
and had learned to trust us to the extent that we could view the eggs without
protest, but when the young were hatched we were always confronted by an
angry parent. No other birds alighted near the nest without creating a dis-
turbance. This year, however, they were not so domineering. A Robin
nested in the same tree within ten feet of the Wren house, while a Thursh
and a pair of Ovenbirds fed near the nest without causing any disturbanc.
Michigan Ornithologicai^ Club 17
BIRDS NOTED EN ROUTE TO NORTHERN MICHIGAN.
NORMAN A. WOOD.
[From flic Uniz'crsify Museum, University of Michigan.]
The past summer of 1904 was a fortunate one for the University Museum,
as it was able to send a party to Northern Michigan to study and collect
natural history specimens. While on the way some observations were made
upon the bird life by Otto McCreary. Max M. Peet, and the writer, but
as those records are widely scattered it was thought best to present them in
this form. A detailed report of the ornithological results is being prepared
and will be published elsewhere. Many birds were seen that could not be
identified with certainty from the train ; so all of doubtful identity have been
omitted. The return was made mostly at night, which accounts for the small
number of records made on the return trip.
The party left Ann Arbor July 10, and at Detroit on that evening ob-
served the Nighthawk and a few Herring Gulls circling over Detroit River.
During the night we left Detroit for Mackinac City on the Michigan Central
R. R. Long before daylight we had passed through the deciduous forests of
southern Michigan,and were among the coniferous forests near Grayling,
Crawford County. This is a region of high sandy hills and Jack Pine plains
covered with pine stumps and burnt stubs — the remnants of a once extensive
pine forest. Here we saw a Red-tailed Hawk, four Crows, two Kingbirds
and Robins. At Waters, Otsego County, we saw a small flock of Tree Swal-
lows (flying over the water), the Flicker, and Hairy and Downy Wood-
At Otsego Lake we saw a Great Blue Heron. At Gaylord, Otsego Co.,
a Meadowlark (not a common bird in this high sandy country), and at
Vanderbilt, also in Otsego Co., we saw the Bronzed Crackle. At Wolverine,
Cheboygan Co., we saw the Chimney Swift. At Topinabee the railroad runs
near the shore of Mullet Lake, and here we saw the Spotted Sandpiper,
Phoebe, and Red-winged Blackbird. Here I met a young man named Glen
Riley, who lives near Onaway, Presque Isle Co., (about 25 miles southeast
of Mullet Lake). Mr. Riley said the Meadowlark, Bobolink, Baltimore
Oriole, and Scarlet Tanger were regular summer residents, and that the
Bob-white had arrived there a few years ago. At Mackinac City and on the
Straits we saw the Herring Gulls as at Detroit.
Leaving St. Ignace on the Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic R. R.. we
passed through an area of cultivated land, and gradually entered a level,
swampy tract. It was in this region, on our return, that the Spruce Partridge
was seen. Here were miles of marshes covered with a short, thin growth
of coarse grass in patches tall enough for hay. A scattered growth of small
tamarack and spruce trees occupied the edges of the marshes, while upon the
dryer ones quite extensive forests were seen. Here the only bird identified
was the Great Blue Heron, near the Soo Junction in Luce Co.
Passing from Luce into Schoolcraft County we find that marshes occupy
most of the region traversed. These are gradually replaced by a mixed forest
of birch and spruce, with some pine and hemlock. The hills and ridges are
covered with forests of hard maple. At Seney, on our return, a Meadowlark
was seen — the most northern point at which we observed this bird. Near
here, also on our return, we saw twelve Great Horned Owls in flocks or
18 BUI.I.KTIN OF THE
families of four. These were flushed from the meadows early in the morning
at the approach of the train, and no doubt were foraging. At Shingleton,
Schoolcraft County, we saw a Red-headed Woodpecker — the only one seen.
In Alger County the sandy plains were a feature not seen since we left the
Lower Peninsula. Here the timber had been cut and fires had cleared them
still more, leaving only a small second growth of aspen and oak. But few
birds were seen : the Blue Jay, Goldfinch, and White-throated Sparrow.
Passing into Marquette County and nearing the Lake Superior shore, the
country was higher and ledges of rock appeared, giving this part of the
State a broken appearance. Marquette is built on high, rocky bluffs on the
shore of Lake Superior. Here we stopped for a few hours. While here we
saw the Barn Swallow ; Song, Chipping and White-throated Sparrows ;
Robin, Crow, Cedar Waxwing, Northern Yellow-throat, Junco, Tree Swal-
low, Goldfinch, Herring Gull and also the English Sparrow.
Leaving Marquette the grade increases for several miles until the top of
the ridge is gained ; then it descends to the end of L'Anse Bay. This part of
Michigan is rugged and rocky, and the tops of the ridges and cliffs are bare.
The ravines and the sides of the ridges are covered with a coniferous forest,
while on the lower ground and along the streams, cedar and tamarack
swamps were seen. Near Marquette we saw a Vesper Sparrow, and near a
stream a Kingfisher ; at Ishpeming a Sparrow Hawk, and a Great Blue
Heron at Michigamme Lake. We also saw a Long-billed Marsh Wren,
Sparrow Hawk, Robin and House Wren at L'Anse, Baraga County. We
saw Blue Jays, Barn Swallows, Kingbird, Kingfisher, Herring Gull, (and on
our return) the Spotted Sandpiper along the shore of the Bay. At Baraga
we saw Barn Swallows, and at Keweenaw Bay, we found the Goldfinch, Song
Sparrow, Bluebird and Cedar Waxwing. The two latter were building nests.
Leaving Keweenaw Bay, on the Mineral Range R. R., we find the same con-
ditions until we cross the Copper Range, and near the shore of Lake Superior
at Ontonagon, where we again find the sandy plains. At Spruce River we saw
a Phoebe, Sparrow Hawk and Chimney Swift.
We arrived at Ontonagon July 12. Just north of town was an alder
swamp in which were seen numerous specimens of Song Sparrow, Junco,
Goldfinch, a Red-eyed Vireo and Robins. Near by in a thicket of arbor
vitae and hemlock, a male Magnolia Warbler was seen and heard singing. A
female Redstart as well as the Vesper and Chipping Sparrows were seen here
also. In a small wood near by were heard the White-throated Sparrow, Wood
Pewee and Hermit Thrush; while near the shore of the lake were seen a
flock of Crows, and out over the lake the Herring Gull. In the town were
seen the House Wren, Chimney Swift, Nighthawk and Sparrow Hawk.
From Ontonagon early in the morning of August 15, we took the steamer
for Hancock. At the dock we counted over ninety adult and young Herring
Gulls standing on one end of the breakwater. Among them we observed a
few Common Terns. All but two of these birds flew up at the near approach
of the steamer, and circled in the air or rested upon the water a short dis-
tance away. While on the way to Hancock two Loons flew over the steamer;
also numbers of Gulls. While going down the canal to Hancock we saw the
gulls and some species of grebe. Here also on our return, September 5, we
saw a flock composed of hundreds of Crows. While we watched them they
Michigan Ornithological Club 19
alighted upon an old meadow and seemed to be picking up something from
At 10 a. m. we arrived at Hancock, where we took the Isle Royale
steamer. Here we saw the English Sparrow and the Herring Gull. On the
morning of August 16, at Washington Island, we saw the American Mer-
ganser. Here on our return, Septembsr 5, I saw the Bay-breasted Warbler,
the Tennessee Warbler, the Golden-crowned Kinglet and the Hermit Thrush,
also the Junco and Sparrow Hawk. I give a list of the fifty-one species of
birds observed en route. The six species marked with a star were not seen at
the Porcupine Mountains or on Isle Royale.
1. — Loon — Gavia imber.
2. — Herring Gull — Larus argentatus.
*3. — Common Tern — Sterna hirundo.
4. — Merganser — Merganser americanus.
5. — Great Blue Heron — Ardea herodias. ^
6. — Spotted Sandpiper — Actitis macularia.
*7. — Bob-white — Colinus virginianus.
*8. — Canadian Spruce Grouse — Canachites canadensis canace.
9. — Red-tailed Hawk — Buteo borealis.'
10. — Sparrow Hawk — Falco sparverius.
11. — Great Horned Owl — Bubo virginianus.
12. — Kingfisher — Ceryle alcyon.
13. — Hairy Woodpecker — Dryobates villosus.
14. — Downy Woodpecker — Dryobates pubescens medianus.
*15. — Red-headed Woodpecker — Melanerpes erythrocephalus.
16. — Northern Flicker — Colaptes auratus luteus.
17. — Nighthawk — Chordeiles virginianus.
18. — Chimney Swift — Chaetura pelagica.
19. — Kingbird — Tyrannus tyrannus.
20. — Phoebe — Sayornis phoebe.
21. — Wood Pewee — -Contopus virens.
22.— Blue Jay — Cyanocitta cristata.
23. — Crow — Corvus brachyrhynchos.
*24. — Bobolink — Dolichonyx oryzivorus.
25. — Red-winged Blackbird — Agelaius phoeniceus.
26. — Meadowlark — Sturnella magna.
*27. — Baltimore Oriole — Icterus galbula.
28. — Bronzed Crackle — Quiscalus quiscula aeneus.
29. — Goldfinch — Astragalinus tristis.
30. — Vesper Sparrow — Prooecetes gramineus.
31. — White-throated Sparrow — Zonotrichia albicollis.
32. — Chipping Sparrow — Spizella socialis.
33. — Slate-colored Junco — Junco hyemalis.
34. — Song Sparrow — Melospiza cinerea melodia.
35. — Scarlet Tanager — Piranga erythromelas.
36. — Barn Swallow — Hirundo erythrogastra.
37. — Tree Swallow — Iridoprocne bicolor.
38. — Cedar Waxwing — Ampelis cedrorum.
39. — Red-eyed Vireo — Vireo olivaceus.
20 Bulletin of the
40. — Tennessee Warbler — Helminthophila peregrina.
41. — Magnolia Warbler — ^Dendroica maculosa.
42. — Bay-breasted Warbler — Dendroica castanea.
43. — Northern Yellow-throat — Geothlypis trichas brachidactyla.
44. — Redstart — Setophaga ruticilla.
45. — House Wren — Troglodytes aedon.
46. — Long-billed Marsh Wren — Telmatodytes palustris.
47. — Golden-crowned Kinglet — ^Regulus satrapa.
48. — Hermit Thrush — Hylocichla guttata pallasii.
49. — Robin — Merula migratoria.
50. — Bluebird — Sialia sialis.
51. — English Sparrow — Passer domesticus.
NOTES FROM THE FIELD.
LATE CANADA GEESE.
On April 30th, while working the vast stretch of meadows bordering
Lake St. Clair, St. Clair County, P. A. Taverner and I saw a flock of some
large birds alight in the fields some distance away. Upon investigation we
were somewhat surprised to see a flock of twenty-one Canada Geese feeding
here. These loomed up very large from amidst the short grass. Upon our
approach the flock rose in the air and, after considerable circling, went north
over Dickinson's Island. Personally I have never seen this species at this
late date. Generally they do not remain to feed during the spring.
Bradshaw H. Swales.
May 2nd seems to have been Warbler day in S. E. Michigan this year. See
N. A. Wood's account of warblers on that date at Ann Arbor in this issue.
This same day Mr. B. H. Swales noted an unusual abundance of these birds
on Belle Isle, Wayne County. Nearly all the birds listed by Mr. Wood were
present on the island this day, and in very unusual numbers. Apparentl>
the crest of a great migration wave struck this vicinity then, and it would be
interesting to hear how general this movement was and how long it per-
sisted in its wave-like form.
AN INTERESTING JUNCO.
April 30 I took a late Junco near Pearl Beach, St. Clair County. The
great mass of this species left here some time ago. The last Junco previous
was noted April 9. The interest in this bird was heightened upon
disection, when it proved to be not only abnormally fat, but of no ascertainable
sex. Birds at this season should be easily sexed, but with a strong magnifying
glass I could recognize no sexual organs at all. This case indicates the close
correlation between sexual and migratory instincts, for here we find incom-
plete sexuality accompanied by incomplete migration. It also shows the
danger of jumping at conclusions and founding a breeding record on a birti's
appearance in an unusual vicinity during the nidification season.
Detroit, Mich. P. A. Taverner.
Michigan Ornithological Club 21
ROUGH WINGED SWALLOW.
May 7 Mr. B. H. Swales and myself discovered a small colony of about six
individuals of Rough-winged Swallows excavating the banks of the Huron
River, in Wayne County. Mr. Saunders, of London, Ont., tells us that this
species is really not as rare as is generally supposed in his locality, and that
nearly every colony of Bank Swallows has a few Rough-wings amongst them.
It is quite possible that this species may prove the same way here. In life it
is so difficult to separate the two species that the Rough-wings are very
apt to escape notice. It is a good idea to scrutinize all flocks of Bank Swal-
lovvs closely. The Rough-winged Swallow is a little larger than the other.
It is said also that the entrance to its nest is round instead of being oval like
that of the Bank Swallow. P. ^. Taverner.
PINE SISKIN IN WELLINGTON COUNTY, ONT.
May 7th, 1905. Have just taken a nest of Pine Siskins from a tall balsam
in a grove near this city. Nest contained two eggs of Siskin and two of
Cowbird. It was placed in the little clump of small branches and twigs at
the end of a horizontal limb about twenty-five feet from the ground. This
is the first nest of this species that I know^ of from this locality.
Guelph, Ont. F. Norman Beattie.
Mr. A. B. Klugh, of Guelph, informs me that he has seen several pairs of
Siskins in same locality as above carrying nesting material and thinks it
probable that a number are breeding there. P. A. Taverner.
Early in the morning of May 6 Mr. R. A. Brown and Mr. Wood were
at the "Overflow," along the Huron River, wheii to their surprise they heard
the song of this bird, with which both were familiar. Mr. Brown entered the
willow swamp in search of the singer, and approached near enough to identify
it as an adult male of Kirtland's Warbler. Both observers are farhiliar with
the bird in its summer home, so that there can be no doubt as to the identity
of the bird. This is the second male and the fifth bird Vicorded from the
vicinity of Ann Arbor, and eight days earlier than the previous records.
Ann Arbor, Mich. N. A. Wood.
The Great Lakes region will be represented at the International Orni-
thologists' Congress to be held early this summer in England, by Mr.
J. H. Fleming, of London. Ont. Mr. Fleming sails in company with Dr.
Jonathan Dwight, Jr., May 26th, on one of the new turbine steamers, via
Gulf of St. Lawrence, which at this season of the year is unrivaled for
observing water birds — fog permitting. Mr. and Mrs. Frank Chapman are
scheduled to leave on the 13th, together with Otto Widmann and wife. Among
the treats not on the official programme which Mr. Fleming is to enjoy is a
visit to Bowlder Sharpe's country place in the vicinity of Selbourne — the
Selbourne made classical bv White and his best beloved o fnatural histories.
22 Bulletin of the
AN UNUSUAL BIRD WAVE.
N. A. WOOD AND OTTO m'cREARY.
[From the University Museum, University of Michigan.]
On Tuesday, May 2, 1905, the bird observers of Ann Arbor were sur-
prised by the sudden appearance of a large number of warblers and
other birds. These birds must have arrived Monday night, as no new
arrivals had been reported on the preceding day. It is usually counted a
very good day, in this locality, if ten or twelve first arrivals are reported,
but the present wave brought 22 species. This is the largest number reported
for any one day during 25 years of records.
Most of these birds were seen among large maples and elm trees, and
along a hedge of large evergreens, upon the campus of the University, and
within a few rods of the University Museum. The maples were just leafing
out. Between 7 and 8 A. M. we observed 30 species of birds in this re-
stricted area, and it would have been difficult to estimate the number of
individuals of some species.
This wave was doubtless caused by peculiar weather conditions. It was
quite cool Sunday night, as ice was observed upon pools of water early
Monday morning. But Monday night a south wind and a light ram
apparently produced the favorable conditions that resulted in this remarka-
The following is the list of the first arrivals, with the earliest date
recorded for this vicinity, and the average date, as based on 25 years of
NAME. EARLIEST DATE. AVERAGE.
1. Oven Bird April 28, i::OO...May, 1st week
2. Wilson's Thrush April 16, 1889 . ..April, 4th week
3. Yellow-throated Vireo April 22, 1S96. . .May, 1st week.
4. Blue-headed Vireo May 4, 1900 May 11.
5. Warbling Vireo April 5. 1897 April 28.
6. Woodcock March 10, 1897 March 22.
7; Red-eyed Vireo April 12, 1902 May 6.
■8. Olive-backed Thrush April 22, 1900 May 3.
9. Virginia Rail May 5, 1880 May 9.
10... Scarlet Tanager April 11, 1886 May 8.
11. Blackburnian Warbler May 2, 1882 May 8.
12. Cerulean Warbler April 30, 1888 May 12.
13. Black-throated Blue Warbler May, 3, 1904 May 6.
14. Tennessee Warbler May 4, 1901 May 10.
15. Nashville Warbler May 2, 1900 May 9.
16. Chestnut-sided Warbler April 27, 1889 May 11.
17. Redstart April 5, 1903 May 6.
18. Parula Warbler May 7, 1903 May 11.
19. Magnolia Warbler May 4, 1902 May 9.
20. Golden-winged Warbler May 4. 1902 May 10.
21. Palm Warbler ' April 26, 188S May 3.
22. Prairie Warbler May 9. 1903 May 10.
Fourteen of these species were seen on the campus and the remainder
in or near the city. The Woodcock was not observed in this vicinity until
Tuesday, but it probably had been here for at least a month.
Michigan Ornithological Club 23
On a ridge south of the Huron River, at Schoolgirl's Glen, we found
three Prairie Warblers. This is a very rare bird and irregular in its occur-
rence here. This record is seven days earlier than previously recorded.
The Palm and Golden-winged Warblers, and also the Woodcock were ob-
served at the Glen.
The Virginia Rail was seen at the ''Overflow," along the Huron River,
by Misses Hays and Parnell. The Scarlet Tanager was seen in the west
part of the city by Miss Vrooman,
All day Tuesday the birds lingered about the campus, where they were
observed as late as 6 P. M. feeding in the tops of the trees. But the south
warm winds continued through the night, so that they were nearly all gone
by 4 A. M. on Wednesday, when again in the field.
On Wednesday there were very few birds on the campus, only ten species
were counted, and even in the fields there were fewer birds than on Tuesday.
The following new arrivals were observed :
NAME. EARLIEST DATE. AVERAGE.
Crested Flycatcher x\pril 19, 1896 May 7.
Carolina Rail April 19, 1899 May 1.
Bay-breasted Warbler May 10, 1903 May 13.
TWO BIRD PICTURES.
During the last fifty years some species of Michigan birds have become
very rare or entirely extinct, while others have greatly increased with the
clearing and settlement of the country. Among the species illustrating the
latter fact v.-e have a striking example in the Rose-breasted Grosbeak. Our
picture (see frontispiece) is from a mounted specimen of a male in breeding
plumage, and gives a good idea of the proportions and color pattern, al-
though the half-tone gives only a hint of the beautiful rose color which
adorns the breast and under wing-coverts. This bird is now very generally
distributed over the state, although it is most common in the Lower Penin-
sula, and probably reaches its greatest abundance in the middle tiers of
counties. During the early history of the state it seems to have been far
from common, but has steadily increased in spite of the enemies whose multi-
plication commonly keeps pace with that of the human population.
The Sandhill Crane whose head is shown in the accompanying picture
affords a melancholy illustration of the fact that an abundant species may be
almost exterminated by the advance of civilization. This beautiful bird
formerly occurred in large numbers over nearly the whole of the untimbered
portions of Michigan, but has steadily decreased in numbers, and with fearful
rapidity during the last decade. Ten years ago it was a common bird in the
marshes of Ingham and surrounding counties, and nested regularly in favor-
able places in this region. Its resonant voice could be heard daily as the
birds passed to or from their feeding grounds, and their striking forms were
noteworthy objects as they passed in files of three to ten through the upper
air during their spring and autumn mgirations. At present few if any are
left in this region, and for the past two years the writer has not even heard
their voice. The facts that the bird is large enough to make a tempting
mark for the rifleman and that its flesh is excellent for the table, undoubtedly
have contributed to its disappearance. It nests habitually in marshy tracts
BuivLETiN OF THE
Sandhill Crane (Grus mexicana)
FROM SPECIMEN IN MUSEUM OF MICH. ACRICULT URAL COLLEGE
which are not readily accessible, but as it feeds largely on the uplands and in
cultivated grounds it runs many risks which smaller and less attractive
species avoid. This bird is generally confounded with the so-called "Blue
Crane" or Great Blue Heron, which is not a crane at all but merely our
largest species of heron. The latter bird nests almost invariably in colonies,
building bulky nests of sticks in the tops of tall trees in the swamps, and
laying four or five blue unspotted eggs, whereas the Sandhill Crane places
its nest on the ground and lays but two eggs which are always mottled and
The cuts from which these pictures arc printed were loaned by the
Agricultural College and are' from the forthcoming bulletin on the birds of
the state which has been so long in preparation and may still be delayed for
fllMcbioan ©rnitbolOQical Club
A QUARTERLY MAGAZINE) DEVOTED TO THE ORNITHOLOGY
OF rHE GREAT LAKE REGION.
WALTER B. BARROWS,
Agricultural College, - Ingham Co., Mich.
P. A. Taverner, - Detroit, Mich.
Norman A. Wood, - Ann Arbor, Mich.
Detroit, Mich., June, 1905.
Subscription: In North America, fifty cents a year, strictly in advance. Single copies, fifteen
cents. Foreifjn Subscription : Seventy-five cents a year to ail countries in the Universal Postal Union.
Free to Members of the Club not in arrears for dues.
Exchanges and Mss. should be' sent to the Editor. Dues, subscriptions and communications of a
business nature should be sent to Frederick C. Hubel, 112 Alexandrine Ave., Detroit, Mich.
THE BIRD MAGAZINES.
The January Auk is particularly interesting- to Michigan readers from
the fact that it contains a long article on the Birds of the Au Sable Valley,
by Norman A. Wood and Earl H. Frothingham. Additional interest centers
around this list because it relates to the region now known to be the summer
home of Kirtland's Warbler. Among other papers of particular interest three
stand out with prominence : Routes of Migration, by W. W. Cooke ; Decrease
of Certain Birds in New England, by E. H. Forbush ; and Regurgitative
Feeding of Nestlings, by Irene G. Wheelock. The number also contains the
Secretary's report of the Twenty-second Congress of the American Ornith-
ologists' Union, and there are several notes on the capture of rare species in
The April Aitk is noteworthy for two papers in addition to Mr. Norman
A. Wood's paper on New and Rare Bird Records for Michigan. One of
these papers, on the Migration of Certain Shore Birds, is reviewed at some
length elsewhere in this Bulletin. The other paper is the Nesting of the
Golden Eagle in ^lontana, by E. S. Cameron, illustrated by four excellent
Bird Lore for ^March-April is rich in interesting notes and pictures for
the bird lover. It opens with a paper by T. Gilbert Pearson on the Cor-
morants of Great Lake, North Carolina, giving striking half-tones of a large
nesting colony of the Florida Cormorant in the cypress trees of this Carolina
lake. There is also another fmely illustrated paper, on the Chimney Swnft,
by Guy A. Bailey, showing young and old swifts in and out of the nest, which
in this case was located on the inside of the gable of a barn, so that the
photographs were taken by flashlight. The excellent series of papers on the
^Migration of Warblers by W. W. Cooke is continued, the colored plate, which
is beyond criticism, representing the Connecticut and Kentucky warblers.
Otto Widmann suggests the Hummingbird as a representative species for a
26 BuivIvETIN OF THE
seal of the National Association of Aiidnbon Societies. He truthfully re-
marks that Hummingbirds are exclusively American, universally known,
everywhere popular, justly admired for beauty and behavior, and fit subjects
for protection everywhere. We heartily endorse his suggestion.
The April number of American Ornithology has much to commend it to
the bird lover as well as some points of merit for the youngest students.
The pictures of a Bluebird feeding the young, and a pair of Bluebirds at
their nest in a fence post are exceptionally good, as is also a half-tone of the
nest and eggs of the Magnolia Warbler. The colored plate illustrating six
species of warblers is far from good, but the pictures of the males at least
can hardly be mistaken, and colored pictures of any kind are usually helpful
to beginners. W. B. B.
ONTARIO NATURAL SCIENCE BULLETIN.
The first number of the Wellington Field Naturalists' Club annual Bulle-
tin was published April 15. Though the club covers in its work a wider field
than ornithology alone, there are some interesting papers on birds in this
number. The most important contribution is a list of Birds of Wellington
Co., Ont., by A. B. Klugh. After a brief description of the physical features
of the county, Mr. Klugh lists 197 species as migrant, resident or accidental,
giving their various degrees of commonness. It is to be regretted perhaps
that the author has not given us a few more dates, but the whole is most
creditable. One of the features of the paper is the author's attacks upon the
practice of forming subspecies upon slight points of variation.
Mr. J. H. Fleming gives us under the heading of An Unusual Migration
of the Canada Jay, all available data upon the unusual occurrence of that
bird in Ontario last fall. This is of peculiar interest to us in this section in
showing the independence of the Ontario migrations with our section, for
though the movement seemed very general in the Province, we received no
indication of anything unusual in our state.
The Origin of Kirtland's Warbler is a speculative paper by P. A.
Rev. J. C. Young gives us an account of the Thrushes of Ontario and a
migration report for the year 1904-05 in tabular form finishes the ornithologi-
cal papers. The remainder of the volume is given to mammalogy and botany,
but under the head of Notes we find many field observations on birds of
interest. The Wellington Field Naturalists' Club shows what a small coterie
of active and enthusiastic workers can do and how valuable are local organ-
izations of this kind. P. A. T.
THE INTERNATIONAL ORNITHOLOGICAL CONGRESS.
The Fourth International Omithological Congress will be held in Lon-
don, England, Monday, June 12th to 17th. The meetings will be held at the
Imperial Institute, South Kensington. Besides the regular meetings of the
sections the following events are provided for in the preliminary programme.
June 15 — Congress will be the guests of the Hon. Walter Rothschild.
June 15— Afternoon — Reception by the Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of
London at the Mansion Llouse. Evening — Dinner given by the British
Michigan ORNiTiioi.ociicAL Ci.ub 27
June 20 — Excursion to Caml)ri(l,f?c. Prof. Newton will welcome the mem-
bers of the Congress and luncheon will be served at Magdalene College.
H. R. II. the Prince of Wales is down as Patron with II. R. 11. Prince
l'\M(linand of P>ulgaria and Alfred Rus.cll Wallace as Honorary Presidents
and k. liowlder Sharpe as President- bdect.
Among the general Committees, Canada is represented by Mr. J. 11.
Fleming, of Toronto, and the United States by J. A. Allen, Frank M. Chap-
man, D. G. Elliott, Chas. W. Richmond, Robt. Ridgway and Leonhard Stej-
It is to be regretted that all of the Committee members from this country
will not attend in person. One of the great causes of disagreement be-
tween our systematists and those abroad seems to be lack of personal con-
tact between them. More intercommunciation would perhaps broaden both
bodies and help to reconcile the discrepancies and antagonisms between our
A. O. U. Check List and the British ^Museum Catalogue which so worry the
curators of general collections.
A NEW FACTOR IN MIGRATION.
The April Auk has an interesting article by Austin H. Clark, in which
a new theory is propounded as to the route taken in migration by certain
shore birds, among which Mr. Clark cites the Golden Plover as a typical
example. It is well known that this species on its southward migration
leaves the main land of the North American continent at Labrador or Nova
Scotia, and moves southeastward in large flocks over the western Atlantic,
over or past Bermuda, eventually reaching the northern coast of South Amer-
ica in the Guianas and northern Brazil. Here the Plover disappear but
later are found on the Argentine Pampas and the plains of Patagonia, wdiere
they spend most of the winter. Returning, they seem never to follow the
route by which they came, but travel northwestwardly to the eastern slope
of the Andes, thence north to Panama and Central xAmerica, ascending the
Mississippi Valley to Manitoba and thence moving northwestward to their
principal breeding grounds in Alaska and Arctic America. After nesting,
they, or many of them, move southeastwardly to Labrador, where they arrive
early in August and remain for two or three weeks fattening" on ''crow ber-
ries" or "curlew berries (Enipctniiii nigntiii), etc., and then taking the sea
route for South America again.
In brief, Mr. Clark's claim is that these birds when migrating always
prefer to fl}' on a '"beam wind," that is, in a line at right angles to the direc-
tion of the wind, or as a sailor would say, ''on the wind." This statement is
based apparently on the observations of Sir Robert H. Schomburgk in 1S4S,
in regard to the migration of shore birds over the island of Barbados, and
of Col. H. W. Feilden writing of the migrant? of the same region in 1SS9
and 1002, supplemented by the later observations of others, including those
of Mr. Clark himself. Applying the th^or}- of flight always at right angles
to the prevailing wind Mr. Clark shows how completely the theorv fits the
observed facts. The southeasterly course of the Golden Plover i? at first
at right angles to the general westerly and southwesterly winds of the tem-
perate zone, wdiich brings the birds from Labrador to Bermuda, or a little
28 Bulletin of the
to the eastward of these islands, when the light easterly winds of the horse
latitudes, and later the increasing northeast trades, bring them to the South
American coast. There is a gap in our knowledge of the route from Brazil
to the Pampas, but as the prevailing winds in the southern tropics are from
the east and southeast, and in the south temperate zone from the west, the
southerly direction may be safely assumed. In late winter and early spring
the prevailing winds of the Argentine Pampas are from the southwest,
which would shape the course of the Plover northwest to the eastern slopes
of the Andes, along which they would pass in a generally northward course
(still across the southeast trades and easterly equatorial winds), crossing the
Isthmus of Panama, traversing Central America and ascending the Missis-
sippi Valley, always moving approximately at right angles to the prevailing
wind ; and their course from Manitoba to their breeding grounds in Alaska
is again nearly at right angles to the prevailing westerly winds.
This theory is one of the most attractive and suggestive which has been
put forward in recent years, and it explains almost completely the hitherto
rather mysterious course of plover, curlew and related shore birds which are
known to take an easterly path in going south and a much more westerly
one during the northward migration in spring. It remains to be seen how
far this factor of migration on a "beam wind" may enter into the migration
courses of species other than shore birds. One naturally thinks at once of
the great southeastward movement of the Bobolinks and Blackbirds of the
Mississippi Valley across the lower Alleghenies to the rice-fields and other
feeding grounds of the South Atlantic and Gulf coasts. The whole fabric
rests on a foundation of observed facts, which as yet, however, is not very
strongly established. Is it a fact that migrating birds prefer to fly across
the direction of the wind? If the answer to this question is unanimously af-
firmative a new and vastly important factor in bird migration will have been
established. But whatever the result may be, Mr. Clark is to be commended
for having called attention to a very important matter which has been gen-
erally overlooked heretofore. W. B. B.
Michigan Ornithologicai, Ci.ub
(Organized February 27, 1904 )
FOR THE PROTECTION OF BIRDS.
7y Home Bank Building, Detroit.
The most interesting event to the protectionists during the present sea-
son was the visit of ^iv. Wm. Dutcher, of New York City, who was recently
elected national president of the Audubon Societies. Mr. Dutcher w^as given
a hearing by the joint game committees of the hou>^e and senate at Lansing
in regard 'to the advisability of adopting the model law. The writer pre-
sented a bill to Senator S. C. Traver and Representative J. E. Bland, both
of \\ liom introduced the same. Dr. Palmer, of the Biological Survey of the
(J. S. Dept. of Agriculture, asked for a copy and made a few^ interlineations.
Mr. Dutcher and Professor Barrows went over the bill and agreed upon fur-
ther changes. The Audubon Societ}' asked for the appointing of four deputy
wardens with compensation at $3.50 yearly. The legislative committee would
not agree to any appropriation, whereupon Mr. Dutcher agreed to stand this
expense through the national society, provided the ^Michigan society was
given the privilege of appointing the four deputies and the law should so
read that the Game W^ardens must remove such deputies upon complaint of
the Audubon society. The -Michigan society is to be incorporated and give
bonds for one thousand dollars.
Under the bill as proposed the taking of non-game birds or the collecting
of eggs is prohibited, except for scientific purposes. A board consisting of
three, to be appointed by the University of [Michigan and the Michigan Agri-
cultural College, w^ill have the granting of licenses, which licenses shall be
allowed upon the recommendation of two reputable ornithologists. The
licenses are to be granted yearly, for which a fee of one dollar is to be
The thanks of the Audubonists are due Prof. W. B. Barrows for his
interest in our bill, as well as W. B. Mershon, of Saginaw, and many others.
Our bill is offered in two forms, first as a separate bill and. second, as an
amendment to the bill of Senator Baird, which includes the regulations in
regard to fish and game. Mr. Dutcher spent the greater portion, of a day
inserting the amendments in their proper places, and lectured in the evening
to an audience of five hundred at the [Museum of Art.
A. B. Covert, of Ann Arbor, gave us some active work in the field, and
it is possible that w'e may have Mr. Henry Oldys, of the Biological Survey, of
Washington, D. C, later in the season. In any event, we will plan for two
or three outings during the spring migration.
Sec. and Treas.
30 Bulletin of the
MINUTES OF CLUB MEETINGS.
The first quarterly meeting for 190:j was held at the Detroit Museum of
Art on March 3, Dr. P. E. Moody in the chair. Eleven members present.
Tne following papers were read : "An Addition to the Detroit Museum of
Art," C. H. Burroughs (read by the chairman in the absence of the author) ;
"The Red Squirrel m its Relation to Birds." J. Claire Wood; "Notes from
Plymouth," James B. Purdy. A. W. Blain, Jr., gave a preliminary notice of
a new use for heron tendons.
A short session followed. Leon J. Cole was appointed a committee to
prepare resolutions on the death of A. B. Durfee, to be presented at the
Messrs. Blain and Wisner offered their resignations as editor-in-chief
and business manager of the Bulletin respectively. Professor Walter B.
Barrows was elected editor-in-chief and Frederick C. Hubel, business mana-
ger, to fill vacant offices.
The following persons were elected members of the society : Frank L.
Burns, Thomas Potter, M. D., James J. Walsh, and Norman Chamberlin.
J. Wilbur Kay,
Secretary pro tciii.
The Annual ^Meeting was held in the University ^Museum of the LTni-
versity of Michigan at Ann Arbor on April 1. A business session was held
in the forenoon in the curator's office. The meeting was called to order by
After the reports of officers the election of officers for 1905-6 was held.
The following were elected: President, Walter B. Barrows; Vice-Presidents,
A. H. Griffith. James B. Purdy and J. Claire Wood ; Secretary, A. W. Blain,
Jr. ; Treasurer and Business Manager of the Bulletin, Frederick C. Hubel.
W. B. Barrows was made editor of the Bulletin, with P. A. Taverner and
Norman A. Wood associate editors. The following were elected members
of the club: H. P. Holt, Toledo, Ohio; L. H. Wood, Kalamazoo, Mich.; Ger-
trude A. Gilmore. Detroit; Frank C. Teal, Detroit; Jesse J. Myers, Agricul-
The afternoon session was held in the Museum lecture room, and was
devoted to the reading of papers. The meeting was called to order by Pro-
fessor Barrows, who addressed the society on "Recent Advances in Ornitholo-
gy." The following program was then presented :
1. "In Memoriam, Albert Bowen Durfee," Leon J. Cole. (Read by J.
Wilbur Kay, in the absence of the author.) The following resolutions were
adopted by the Club :
"Whereas, In the death of Albert Bowen Durfee there has been lost to
Michigan ornithology one of its most enthusiastic observers and ardent lovers
of nature, and to the Michigan Ornithological Club one who was instrumental
in its founding and who ably served as its first president; and
"JJ'liereas, In his friendship and help those of us who knew him per-
sonally gained inspiration for our work and respect for a character that was
high-minded, honest and true, be it therefore
"Resolved, That we, as members of the Michigan Ornithological Club,
through these resolutions convey our sincere sympathy to the family of the
Michigan Ornithological Club 31
departed and pay a tribute to one who has aided in a real though unosten-
tatious wa}' in the progress of ornithological study in the state ; and, more-
over, be it further
^'Resolved, That the secretary be instructed to send a copy of these reso-
lutions to the bereaved family and publish same in the Bulletin of the Club.'"
2. Birds Noted en roule to Northern ^lichigan, Norman A. Wood. Re-
marks by the chair, A. B. Covert and the author.
3. Ecological Distribution of the Birds of the Porcupine Mountains,
Michigan, Otto McCreary.
4. Observations on the Nesting Habits of a Pair of House Wrens,
Max M. Peet. Remarks by A. W. Blain. Jr.
5. On the Use in Surgery of Tendons of the Ardeidse and Gruidse,
A. W. Blain, Jr. Remarks by Norman A. Wood and the author.
6. Some Nevv' and Rare Records for Michigan, Xorman A. Wood.
Discus.-ion on the occurrence of the Thick-billed Blackbird, by A. B. Covert,
P. A. Taverner and the author.
7. A List of Birds from the ^^lichigan Forest Reserve, Crawford County.
Earl H. Erothingham.
8. The Occurrence of Bewick's Wren, Thryoinancs bczcickii. (And.)
at Grand Rapids. Leon J. Cole. (Read by Wm. H. Dunham.) Remarks by A.
9. An Interesting Migration Route, P. A. Taverner. Remarks by Chas.
C. Adams, A. B. Covert and the author.
The meeting adjourned to meet at the Detroit ^kluseum of Art on June 3.
Alexaneer W. Blain, Jr.,
MCZ ERNST MAYR LIBRARY
if the oldest and cheapest monthly devoted to birds in America. It is
now in its twenty-first volume.
Are you forming a collection ? If so, you need our exchangee
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SUBSCRIPTION 50c. A YEAR. (16pp. EVrRY HONTN.)
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ERNEST H. SHORT, Editor and Manai;er, CHILI, N. Y.
JOaK I^BWIS CECILDS, BsiXOB
ITH 1905 Tho Warbler begins a new
series which will contain many su-
perb Colored Plates of rare eggs such as
Kirtland and Olive Warbler. Carolina Par-
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Crowned Sparrow, Yellow and Black Rail.
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illustrations of Birds and Nests, and lead-
ing articles by well known authorities.
Published Quarterly, 32 Pages & Cover
Sl.OO PBR "THAR. SrNOI.B OOPIB3S 30o
Eggs of Kirtland Warbler will be figured
in first issue (Jan or Feb.)of the new series.
ADDKsss THE WAHBttER
FliORAK. PARE, N. Y.
OF jt j»
Now in its sixth volume. You
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also the series on "The War-
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Messrs. Knight, Swain, Spin-
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50 Cents Per Annum.
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THE ONTARIO NATURAL SCIENCE BULLETIN
Journal of tft0 Weltington Field /^ataralijts'Ctttb. No. 1. 1905
An Annual DeVoted to the Fauna and Flora of Ontario.
EVERY naturalist in the Great Lake Region should have a copy
in order to keep in touch with the Ornithological, Mamma-
logical and Botanical work done in Ontario Section of the
Region. This number contains articles by Ontario's best natural-
ists. One article gives a full account of the unusual migration of
the Canada Jay, which occurred in Ontario last fall.
Order at once to be sure ef securing a
copy as 1000 copies are already ordered.
PRICr, 25 CENTS PER COPY
Thb Business Manager "O. N.S.B." Box 668, Guelph, Ont.
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A MAGAZINE OF WESTERN ORNITHOLOGY
WALTER K. FISHER.
THE CONDOR is an illustrated bi-monthly magazine published by"
the Cooper Ornithological Club of California. During 1905 THE CON-
DOR will be profusely illustrated with pictures of wild birds taken
directly from nature, and will number among its contributors many of
the best known bird men of the country. A feature of the present
volume is the series of portraits of European ornithologists. THE
CONDOR is now in its seventh volume, and is better in every way than
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